Muscle Nerve –, BRACHIAL PLEXOPATHIES: CLASSIFICATION,. CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES. MARK A. FERRANTE. Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences. (English) . Cervical rib and median sternotomy-related brachial plexopathies: a reassessment. Items 1 – 20 Brachial Plexopathies, Classification, Causes and Consequences (Muscle and Nerve, ) – Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read.

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Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences.

The number of fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves on electromyography testing does not predict the severity of injury. Related Articles Rehabilitation management of head and neck cancers March 2,2: The presence of brachial plexus cknsequences in polytrauma is of poor prognostic significance. Graft length of graft of 6—8 cm is acceptable for obtaining satisfactory results, as results are plezopathies for more extensive lesions requiring longer graft lengths. Natural history of brachial plexus neuropathy.

Thus, preganglionic total hrachial brachial plexus injury seems to be the type of injury that may benefit most from earlier nerve reconstruction procedures, especially for hand function reconstruction, which can be obstinate to treatment.

Males are approximately two times more commonly affected than females By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Based on whether the injury is proximal or distal to the dorsal root ganglion DRGthey are further characterized as preganglionic and postganglionic, respectively. Commonly affects the infraclavicular plexus. Similar to traumatic spinal cord injury, these injuries are most often associated with motor vehicle and often motorcycle collisions.

Brachial plexopathies: classification, causes, and consequences.

Usefulness of myelography in brachial plexus injuries. However, nerve grafts performed at earlier time points may result in unnecessary surgery in individuals who would otherwise demonstrate some degree of spontaneous recovery. Traumatic root avulsions may occur in conjunction with brachial plexus injuries in the context of high-energy stretch.


The axonal viability index, the ratio of amplitude of the involved side to the unaffected limb, has been used for electrodiagnostic prognostication in newborns. RTW status should be determined only after maximum medical improvement. No equipment or strengthening has been proven to decrease the risk of brachial plexus injury.

Plexopathy results from direct axonal damage, demyelination, and microvascular infarction and more indolently because of compression caused by fibrosis, commonly seen following radiation therapy for breast, lung, lymphoma, and head and neck cancer.

It is caused by narrowed thoracic outlet, possibly because of cervical rib likely a fibrous band running from a rudimentary cervical rib to the first consequencew rib or hypertrophied anterior scalene or ischemic injury caused by restricted flow through the subclavian artery.

Of the 14 people who were not working, 10 associated their injury with their unemployment. To date, outcome reporting conzequences brachial plexus surgery has largely centered on motor recovery and typically has not included measures of function or non-musculoskeletal recovery.

Rates brachiall employment do seem to be affected by injury. Clinically, preganglionic injuries eg, root avulsions can be associated with Horner syndrome disruption of the autonomic trunkmedial scapular winging injury to long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerveand denervation of the cervical conseqyences muscles. Cervical rib and median sternotomy-related brachial plexopathies: History Duration of symptoms Characteristics of pain, sensory changes, weakness, and muscle atrophy Infection, activity, or injury associated with onset Change in symptoms with change in head, neck, or arm position Aand symptoms Change in function activities of daily living [ADLs], sports performance, etc Personal or familial history of neoplasm, radiation, chemotherapy, demyelinating disorders, diabetes or previous brachial plexopathy Details of pregnancy and brachixl in neonatal patients Physical examination Standardized neurologic examination Tests of manual muscle strength, sensation, and reflexes commensurate with the affected portions of the plexus May include Tinel sign over the brachial plexus Vascular: March consequsnces,1: Counseling regarding etiology, treatment options, prognosis for recovery, and prevention of secondary complications is a critical component of the overall plan of care.


The test is considered positive for TOS if it induces progressive pain in neck to shoulder to arm, paresthesias in the forearm or fingers, arm pallor when elevated and hyperemia when lowered vascular TOSor reproduction of the usual symptoms that involve the entire arm. All structured data from the main, property and lexeme namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License ; text in the other namespaces is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply.

Pleexopathies incidence of radiation-induced plexopathies has decreased with tissue-sparing targeted radiotherapy. Lehman, MD Comments are off. Return to work RTW: Neonatal brachial plexopathy may be associated with glenohumeral joint dysplasia, joint contractures shoulder, elbow, supinationposterior plwxopathies dislocation, or length discrepancies. Such abnormal spontaneous activity represents spontaneous depolarization of a muscle fiber in the setting of any kind of denervation.

Paraneoplastic syndrome and NA commonly affect additional peripheral nerves outside the brachial plexus distribution. Ste Rosemont, IL Phone: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Breast cancer Exercise effects and fatigue in cancer patients Functional outcomes after rehabilitation of consequeences Intracranial Neoplasms Neuromuscular complications of cancer Palliative care Primary Bone Tumors Radiation plexopathy Rehabilitation interventions for metastatic bone tumors Rehabilitation management of head and neck cancers Rehabilitation management of hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant adults and pediatrics Side effects of cancer treatment cancer surgery, chemotheraphy, radiation therapy.